Density The mass per unit volume of a substance
Pressure The normal force acting per unit cross-sectional area
Pressure in liquid The normal force exerted by a liquid, acting per unit cross-sectional area. Upon calculating stuff like this don’t forget that besides the pressure due to the liquid, there’s also a pressure due to air(and altitude)

Order and Disorder

  • In a crystalline material, the atoms are arranged in a regular patter. Pure metals are typically crystalline.
  • In non-crystalline materials, the atoms are arranged randomly. Such materials are amorphous.

Brownian motion produces evidence for the movement of molecules. The kinetic model allows us to explain the behaviour of matter, and macroscopic properties of matter, in terms of behaviour of molecules.


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