Amino Acids, and Peptide Bonds

3.1 Amino Acids 

  • All amino acids have a central carbon which is bonded to an amine group ( -NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). Amino acids differ only in the R group (which is also attached to the central C atom, along with an Hydrogen) or side chain.
  • There are 20 different amino acids, which are naturally occurring. Many others have been synthesized in the lab.

3.2 Peptide Bonds

The peptide bond is a strong covalent bond.

  • The bond is formed when two amino acids react together in a condensation reaction (Means that water results form the reaction).
  • The new molecule made up by the two amino acids is called a dipeptide. A molec. made up of more than two amino acids is called a polypeptide.
  • The site where amino acids are joined together to form polypeptides, in a cell, is the ribosome. The reaction is controlled by enzymes.
  • EXTRA: In stomach, sometimes a hydrolysis reaction happens and polypeptides are broken down to amino acids in order to be absorbed into the blood.


3.2 Structure (Briefly Explained)

3.3 Haemoglobin

3.4 Collagen (To come)


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