3.1 Amino Acids
- All amino acids have a central carbon which is bonded to an amine group ( -NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). Amino acids differ only in the R group (which is also attached to the central C atom, along with an Hydrogen) or side chain.
- There are 20 different amino acids, which are naturally occurring. Many others have been synthesized in the lab.
3.2 Peptide Bonds
The peptide bond is a strong covalent bond.
- The bond is formed when two amino acids react together in a condensation reaction (Means that water results form the reaction).
- The new molecule made up by the two amino acids is called a dipeptide. A molec. made up of more than two amino acids is called a polypeptide.
- The site where amino acids are joined together to form polypeptides, in a cell, is the ribosome. The reaction is controlled by enzymes.
- EXTRA: In stomach, sometimes a hydrolysis reaction happens and polypeptides are broken down to amino acids in order to be absorbed into the blood.
GO FURTHER TO:
3.2 Structure (Briefly Explained)
3.4 Collagen (To come)